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[78] Campaign of Dhat Al-Salasil

The Campaign of Dhat Al-Salasil occurred soon after “defeat” at the Battle of Mu’tah, when various Ghassanid affiliated tribes sensed an opportunity to invade Medina. They thought the Muslims would be weak and demoralized.

A bedouin learned about the gathering army and informed Prophed Muhammad, who designated an army and commander to go fight them.

From here the Shia and Sunni narratives diverge sharply. Sheikh Azhar Nassers explains both the different views and shares ideas for why they may have ended up with such drastically different versions.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EMvH–xJPjg&list=PLpkB0iwLgfTat-Pgh4W3WFmupPamiC9UT

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com

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[77] Fighting the Roman Army

The Roman army, with 10,000 soliders, outnumbered the Muslims 3:1 at the Battle of Mutah. Some of the Muslims feared the large army and wanted to retreat, but the senior companions bolstered their courage.

Prophet Muhammad had appointed a leader for the army, with two backup leaders in case the first one was martyred.

This was a hard battle. Jaffer ibn Abi Talib was the first leader, and he was martyred in the battle. Zayd ibn Haritha was the second leader, and he also became martyred. Abdullah ibn Rawaha was the final designated leader, and fell as well. Overall, about 11 Muslims were martyred in the battle, and the Muslims eventually ended up retreating.

Back in Medina, the prophet was witnessing the battle through his ilm ul ghayb (knowledge of the unseen) and narrated the battle in realtime, both the heroics and the shahadats.

The final verdict on the battle is mixed. Some historians called it a defeat since the Muslims retreated, others call it a draw due to the insignificant numer of casualties, where neither side took over the other’s land, and some historians called it a strategic victory since fighting a non-arab army put htem on the map on a global stage and gave them experience to fighting non-arab armies.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uU0X1QqHad0&list=PLpkB0iwLgfTat-Pgh4W3WFmupPamiC9UT

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com

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[76] The Battle of Mu’tah – Prelude

The Battle of Mu’tah was triggered when a messenger Prophet Muhammad sent to Ghassani Shurahbil was murdered. This was a declaration of war.

While Prophte Muhammad himself didn’t participate in this battle, thanks to the treaty of Hudaybiyya he was able to send 3000 Muslims to fight without compromising the securit of Medina.

As the army departed, the Prophet reminded them to maintain taqwa, keep to treaties kept, and to not attack women or children. He also insturcted them to offer the enemy three different surrender conditions

As they marched closer to the enemy, the Muslims realized that despite their large numbers, the opposing army outnumbered them more than 3 to 1.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foTI7fQ3ks8&list=PLpkB0iwLgfTat-Pgh4W3WFmupPamiC9UT

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com

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[75] Umra al-Qadha

Prophet Muhammad led the Muslims on a second attempt at Umra, thet qazaa for the last one which they couldn’t complete.

Rumor spread among the Mushrikeen that the Muslims were weakened, so the Prophet instructed his followers to show extra strength and bravado to dispel that notion.

During the Umra:

– Meccans removed their idols from the kaba for the Muslims

– Muslims stashed their weapons nearby, under guard, in case the Meccans tried to attack them

– The Prophet’s Uncle Abbas, who had secretly converted to Islam and stayed in Medina, openly revealed his conversion

– Bilal, the ex-slave, was instructed to recite the Adhan on top of the kaba, which outraged the class conscious Meccans

– The prophet married Maymuna ibnt al-harith, most likely to establish a kinship with some of his fierce opponents

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AdRc7uHHodo&list=PLpkB0iwLgfTat-Pgh4W3WFmupPamiC9UT

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com

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[74] Fadak – Granted and Usurped

Prophet Muhammad had given the garden of Fadak to his daughter Fatima, but after his passing it snatched away from her by Abu Bakr and Umar.

This lecture explains: – How Fadak became the Prophet’s property – Why he gifted it to Lady Fatima – Fadak was a source of immense wealth, generating enough income to fund an army. – How Umar adviced Abu Bakr to take Fadak away from her, since it would strip Imam Ali of his strength and make people less likely to follow him – Abu Bakr’s twisting of Fiqh laws to create an excuse to take Fadak away – Fadak’s history of being alternatively taken away from and being given back to the Ahlul Bayt, based on whether the ruler of the time needed to look like he supported the Ahlul Bayt, or if he needed to deprive them of their source of funding.

The lecture also describes: – How the Prayer of Jafar al-Tayyar came to be, it being a special gift Prophet Muhammad gave to Jaffer ibn Abi Talib. – During a severe drought, Prophet Muhammad sent gold nuggets from the spoils of Khaybar to the Meccans (who were still pagan) to be distributed among the poor

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUXztsqZ25w&list=PLpkB0iwLgfTat-Pgh4W3WFmupPamiC9UT

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com

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[73] Khaybar – Victory, Khums & Marrying Safiyyah

The victory at Khaybar changed the lives of the Muslim community and became a source of financial strength for them.

The lecture includes:

– The surrender treaty, where the Jews were allowed to remain on Khaybar in return for a share of the harvest

– How the prophet distributed the khums from the war

– The Muhajireen using their share of khums to return what the Ansaar had given them and become financially independent

– Prophet Muhammad’s marriage to Safiyyah Bint Huyayy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddKpkuawxHs

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com

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[72] Khandaq – Miracles and Conquest

The Muslims marched to the Fort of Khaybar, attack and defeat it’s treacherous occupants.

Along the way, various miracles occur:

– An assassin attempts to kill Prophet Muhammad, but he miraciously is suddenly mentally handicapped.

– Imam Ali’s unable to fight due to an illness in his eyes. Prophet Muhammad heals him and Imam Ali leads the Muslims to victory.

– Imam Ali single handedly moves the fallen gate of Khaybar, which was so heavy it normally take many men to open and close it.

In addition, while Imam Ali was sick, Prophet Muhammad also offered the army’s standard (i.e. leadership) to Abu Bakr and Umar, giving them a chance to take on the fortress. Both returned unsuccessful, with them blaming their men, and their men blaming them.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vkLiVO6T2Vc&list=PLpkB0iwLgfTat-Pgh4W3WFmupPamiC9UT

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com

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[71] Battle of Khaybar – Attempting Diplomacy

Khaybar was manned by Jewish tribes that had previously reacted treasonously against the Muslims and had been exiled from Medina in turn.

They had already attacked the Muslims once, by participating in the Battle of Khandak, and Prophet Muhammad received intel that those Jewish tribes were again planning to ally with another pagan tribes to attack Medina.

The Prophet again attempted a diplomatic outreach to the tribes in Khaybar, but it fell on deaf ears. Realizing that the Jews at Khaybar were determined to march against Mecca yet again, Prophet Muhammad prepared to strike against them first.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gBqMqgP0ERk&list=PLpkB0iwLgfTat-Pgh4W3WFmupPamiC9UT

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com

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[70] Letters to the Persians and Coptics

Prophet Muhammad continues his outreach to foreign leaders, sending messengrs to the Persian emperor Khosrow II and the Coptic ruler Muqawqis of Alexandria.

The outreach teaches us:

– Islam was always meant to be globalized, not just for the Arabs. We need to also think deeply about how to universalize the messaging

– The way people respond to the Prophet had an impact on their dunya and akhira

– The prophet addresses world leaders with their respective titles. This is part of the etiquette of dialogue.

– Even when people are tyranical rulers, it doesn’t give us the right to be abusive (especially when we’re unprovoked). Even Musa was instructed to speak gently to Feron

– Communicate using simple language and get to the point. The letters were short and succinct.

– Customize your communication to cater to your audience

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDuHQa1oDOs&list=PLpkB0iwLgfTat-Pgh4W3WFmupPamiC9UT

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com

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[69] Dawah to Surrounding Leaders

With the repreieve provided by the Treaty of Hudaybiyya, Prophet Muhammad can focus on spreading Islam by doing dawah to surrounding leaders. This lecture covers encounters with two prominent leaders:

1. The Abysinnian king Najashi, who converted to Islam

2. The Roman emperor Heraclius, who questioned Abu Sufyan and acertained Prophet Muhammad’s legitimacy, but did not openly convert

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FqptIDOW2fU&list=PLpkB0iwLgfTat-Pgh4W3WFmupPamiC9UT

Podcast version: podcast.lifeofprophetmuhammad.com